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In the 1840s, there was a public scandal when it was discovered that malnourished inmates at Andover workhouse had been fighting over scraps of rotting meat left on some bones they were supposed to be crushing. It was intended to provide interesting and useful occupation such as knitting, embroidery or lace-making for non-able-bodied workhouse inmates who spent long hours confined to bed or in day rooms.Training in the various crafts was provided by outside volunteers and the costs were initially borne by Lady Brabazon.Casuals — typically vagrants, tramps, or the "houseless poor" — did not need to be settled in the union.They were required to perform a task of work such as stone-breaking or oakum-picking being allowed to leave.The scheme was slow to take off, with Kensington being the first to adopt it in 1883.However, it gradually spread, particularly when it was found that the goods produced were saleable and made the scheme self-financing. Originally the graveyard adjoining the Royal Hospital in Dublin, where no payment of fees was exacted.Ex officio members of a union's Board of Guardians were people, usually local Justices of the Peace, who were entitled to a seat on their local Board without needing to be elected.An establishment originally offering a wide range of care, not only medical but also non-medical provision such as shelter and food, the education of children, and sanctuary for those incapacitated by old age or chronic infirmity.
(See also Rebecca Riots.) A typical 'Swing' letter. The Casual Poor (usually known just as "Casuals") were those to which a workhouse gave temporary accommodation for one or two nights.The dietary specified the food to be served to each class of inmate (male/female, adult/children etc.) for each meal of the week, often including the exact amount to be provided. A small outbuilding, room, or room-fitting used as a toilet, where dry earth is used to cover and deodorise deposits.After 1834, the Poor Law Commissioners devised a set of six slightly different standard dietaries from which each union could select the one it preferred, based on the local availability of various foodstuffs. (See also Privy, Water Closet, Water Closet, Lavatory, Laundry.) Diagram of an earth-closet. Ex officio is a Latin phrase meaning "by virtue of one's office".(See also Poorhouse, Workhouse.) An Act of 1697, amending the Settlement laws, required that anyone receiving poor relief wear a badge on their right shoulder.The badge, in red or blue cloth, consisted of the letter "P" together with the initial letter of the parish, for example "AP" for Ampthill parish.